This guide describes general characteristics of transactions in the Galileo system. For an explanation of how card transactions work specifically, consult <a href="doc:about-card-transactions" target="_blank">About Card Transactions</a>.
In the Galileo system, “transaction” describes any movement of funds into or out of a customer account. Transaction types include payment-card transactions, direct deposits, <<glossary:ACH>> transfers, cash loads, ATM fees, and other types of money movement.
Transactions are central to any banking app. Your customers expect to use your product to create transactions and to see a history of their transactions. You can enable them to do both by using Galileo's API.
## Creating transactions
Transactions are created in two primary ways:
**Using the API** — The transaction can be initiated by:
Your customers on your web site or mobile app, such as an ACH credit
You, according to your business logic, such as assessing a fee
**Outside the API** — The transaction can be initiated by:
A card reader at a point of sale or ATM, such as a card purchase at a merchant site. See <a href="doc:about-card-transactions" target="_blank">About Card Transactions</a> for more information.
An external depositing entity, such as an employer making a direct deposit. See <a href="doc:about-ach" target="_blank">About ACH</a> for more information.
An external debiting entity, such as a utility automatically withdrawing a billing amount
For the transactions that are created outside of your programmatic control, you can be notified of them by consuming the <a href="ref:api-reference-auth-api-about-auth-api" target="_blank">Auth API webhook</a> or the <a href="ref:api-reference-events-api-about-events-api" target="_blank">Events API webhook</a>, obtaining <a href="doc:transaction-history" target="_blank">Transaction History</a> via API, or consuming the daily <<glossary:RDF>>s.
See <a href="doc:about-the-events-api" target="_blank">About the Events API</a> and <a href="doc:about-rdfs-and-cdfs" target="_blank">About RDFs and CDFs</a> for more information.
## Classifying transactions
Each transaction is classified by its activity category and transaction type.
### Activity category
All transactions belongs to one of four activity categories:
<a href="doc:about-card-transactions" target="_blank">**Authorization/Settlement**</a> — A transaction that occurs over a card network's rails (system), such as when a cardholder initiates a purchase at a store.
<a href="doc:creating-a-payment" target="_blank">**Payment**</a> — A transaction by which funds are moved into a customer account, originating with the Program API or with an external source such as a paycheck deposit.
<a href="doc:about-adjustments" target="_blank">**Adjustment**</a> — A transaction used to modify the customer's balance for various operational purposes, either a credit or debit, originating with the Program API or a direct debit from outside the API, such as an ACH transaction.
<a href="ref:post_assessfee" target="_blank">**Fee**</a> — A transaction that charges a cardholder for a particular service, which may originate with the Program API or by an automated process.
The authorization/settlement category is broken down into multiple activity types, whereas payments, adjustments, and fees have only one activity type each. The activity types in the authorization/settlement category differentiate among card networks such as Mastercard and Visa and types of transactions such as authorizations, expired authorizations, backouts and settlements.
Galileo uses two capital letters to represent activity types. Some common authorization/settlement activity types are:
|`||Mastercard Banknet authorization|
|`||Mastercard Banknet settlement|
|`||Mastercard debit authorization|
|`||Mastercard debit settlement|
|`||Visa Interlink settlement|
|`||Visa Plus settlement|
Non-network activity types are represented as follows:
For a list of all activity types consult the <a href="ref:api-reference-activity-type" target="_blank">Activity Type</a> enumeration.
### Transaction type
Each of the activity type categories is divided into more specific transaction types, often called _otypes_. For example, a payment could be a direct deposit, a cashier's check, or a cash load, among others.
A transaction type consists of one to four characters and may contain letters or numbers. Transaction types are case sensitive, so in the adjustment activity category, `
DC` is a Discover chargeback whereas `
dc` is a direct-load reversal.
A transaction type is unique only within the activity category. For example, `
Z` is a bill-payment check in the adjustment activity category and a refund in the authorization/settlement activity category.
This table contains some authorization/settlement transaction types that are common to all networks:
|`||Mastercard Banknet settlement|
|`||Mastercard Banknet settlement for mobile wallet or peer-to-peer cash transfer|
See the <a href="ref:api-reference-transaction-types" target="_blank">Transaction Types</a> enumeration for a list of authorization/settlement transaction types. For payments, adjustments, and fees, the list of supported transaction types is specific to your use case and bank requirements. Galileo will provide you with a curated list of transaction types that you will be using.
### Transaction codes
A transaction code (often designated `
trans_code`) is a combination of an activity type (the first two characters) and a transaction type (the remaining characters). This table shows some common transaction types.
|Code||Activity type||Transaction type|
Because of this structure, a transaction code can be easily deconstructed to obtain the activity type and transaction type.
### Activity type and transaction type in the Galileo system
The transaction code and its component parts are represented differently by different aspects of the Galileo system.
#### Program API
The program APIs return the transaction code, activity type and transaction type in these fields:
|Get Account Overview||X||X|||
|Get Authorization History||||||X|
|Get Transaction History||X||X|||
|Get All Transaction History||X||X||X|
Use the `
trans_code` for reconciliation with the Posted Transactions RDF.
#### Events API
Authorization, Settlement, and Transaction Events messages break out the transaction code into two fields: activity type (`
act_type`) and transaction type (`
#### Auth API
The activity type must be derived from the `
auth_type` and `
subnetwork` parameters. For example, if `
auth_type: Auth` and `
subnetwork: Mastercard Debit Switch`, then the activity type is `
DB` (Mastercard Debit Authorization).
The transaction type is in the `
transaction_type` parameter. However, the value will be a transaction-type description rather than the code. For example, you would see `
transaction_type: Balance Inquiry` instead of `
The Posted Transactions <<glossary:RDF>>s includes the transaction code as `
TRANSACTION CODE/TYPE`. The transaction code may be deconstructed to obtain the activity type and transaction type. Use the lookup file included with the RDFs to obtain the transaction code description.
TRANSACTION CODE` field in the Authorized Transactions RDF does not contain the `
trans_code`. It contains a numeral that specifies the type of authorization that was requested. See the <a href="ref:api-reference-transaction-types#authorization-types" target="_blank">Authorization types</a> list in the _Transaction Types_ enumeration.
On the _All Transactions_ screen in the <<glossary:CST>>, the **Type** column contains the activity type description, and the **Type** field in the **Details** column contains the transaction type code.
This table summarizes the way transaction codes are represented in the Galileo system.
|Galileo system||Activity type / transaction type|
|Get Account Overview <br>Get Transaction History <br>Get All Transaction History||`|
|Posted Transactions RDF||`|
|CST||**Type** column / **Type** field in the **Details** column|
## Transaction properties
Among a transaction’s properties, the most important are amount, timestamp, and the category-specific properties.
amount` or `
amt` field indicates how much money is involved in the transaction and specifies which direction the funds are moving: a positive amount means that money is entering the customer account (credit) and a negative amount means that money is leaving the account (debit).
The sign for the amount is represented differently in different Galileo systems.
In the standard RDFs the `
TRANSACTION AMOUNT` field is followed by the single-character `
TRANSACTION AMOUNT SIGN` field, which contains either `
-` (debit) or `
+` (credit). In the secondary RDFs, the sign follows the amount and is in the same `
TRANSACTION AMOUNT` field as the amount, for example: `
30.25-` for a debit or `
23.67+` for a credit.
#### Auth API
In the Auth API the amount does not have a plus or minus sign. You must determine whether it is positive or negative by the transaction type. First, multiply the amount by –1, then multiply again by –1 for each of these conditions:
transaction_type: Merchant Credit`
#### Program API
Amounts that credit a cardholder account have no sign, and amounts that debit an account are are preceded by a hyphen: `
35.41` and `
#### Events API
Most events have no sign in the `
amount` field, so you must infer whether the amount is credited or debited by the event type. For example, a <a href="ref:api-reference-events-api-auth" target="_blank">`
BAUT: auth`</a> event is a debit whereas <a href="ref:api-reference-events-api-auth-payment" target="_blank">`
AAPM: auth_payment`</a> is a credit. On the other hand, <a href="ref:api-reference-events-api-fee-reversal" target="_blank">`
FREV: fee_reversal`</a> contains a negative number because it is reversing out a fee. These exceptions are noted in each Event description.
Depending on the data source and the activity category, there may be one or two timestamps. If there are two timestamps showing different times, the earlier timestamp shows the time the transaction was initiated and the later timestamp shows when it was posted. For authorization/settlements, the first timestamp is the authorization and the second the settlement. If the two timestamps show the same time it means the transaction was posted immediately.
All Galileo timestamps are in the America/Phoenix time zone (MST -07:00), a time zone that does not observe daylight saving
### Category-specific properties
Other properties of the transaction may be important, depending on which activity category the transaction belongs to. For example, `
mcc` (merchant category code) is pertinent to authorizations and settlements, and `
related_transaction` is pertinent to pending fees.
## Linking transactions
Some transactions pass through multiple phases before completion, such as most card transactions (authorization/settlement), whereas fees are often connected to transactions that may or may not have originated on the card networks. The fields in this table can help you link related transactions.
|Transaction type||Linked to||Linking field|
|Settlement or posting||Authorization or non-network transaction||`|
The linking fields for authorizations have different names in different systems, but they all contain the same value:
original_auth_id`** — <a href="ref:post_getauthhistory" target="_blank">Get Authorization History</a>, <a href="ref:post_gettranshistory" target="_blank">Get Transaction History</a>, Events API
prior_id`** — <a href="ref:post_getalltranshistory" target="_blank">Get All Transaction History</a>
original_id`** — Auth API
**Reversal ID** — <<glossary:CST>>
related_transaction`** — <a href="ref:post_getpendingfees" target="_blank">Get Pending Fees</a> and <a href="ref:post_getaccountoverview" target="_blank">Get Account Overview</a>.
The linking fields contain the `
auth_id` of a previous authorization in these circumstances:
The merchant performs incremental authorizations for a single purchase. Each authorization has the `
auth_id` of the previous authorization in the chain.
An authorization or preauthorization is reversed. The reversal has the `
auth_id` of the transaction to reverse in the linking field.
A preauthorization is followed by a completion. The completion contains the `
auth_id` of the original preauthorization.
You charge a fee for a card transaction, such as an ATM fee. The fee is broken out separately from the settlement in the Posted Transactions RDF, and the fee entry has the `
auth_id` of the original authorization. (The original authorization has the fee included in the amount instead of broken out.)
For authorization/settlement transactions the `
auth_id` and `
source_id` contain the same value. However, the `
source_id` for a transaction that does not originate on a card network may or may not have an `
auth_id`, but when the `
auth_id` is present, the `
source_id` is often different, because it maps to the specific transaction type such as a payment ID or fee ID. For example, a Maestro load payment (`
trans_code: PMMX`) can have an `
auth_id` in the Authorized Transactions RDF that maps to the `
auth_id` in the Posted Transactions RDF, but the `
source_id` is different, because it maps back to the payment ID. See <a href="page:scenario-17-card-load-maestro" target="_blank">Scenario 17: Card Load (Maestro)</a> for an example.
In the CST, the **ID** field always maps to the `
In the <a href="doc:secondary-rdf-reference#posted-transactions-rdf-fields" target="_blank">Secondary RDFs</a> or the <a href="doc:rdf-reference#posted-transactions-rdf-fields" target="_blank">conventional RDFs</a> (by request), the mapping is as follows:
PRIOR ID` — Contains the payment, adjustment, or fee that links to the current transaction.
REVERSAL ID` — Contains the `
AUTHORIZATION CODE` of the previous authorization in the series.
For examples of linking fields in use, see these card transaction scenarios:
<a href="page:scenario-2-preauthorization-with-completion" target="_blank">Scenario 2: Preauthorization with Completion</a>
<a href="page:scenario-3-incremental-authorizations" target="_blank">Scenario 3: Incremental Authorizations</a>
<a href="page:scenario-4-reversal-on-authorization-before-clearing-mastercard" target="_blank">Scenario 4: Reversal on Authorization Before Clearing (Mastercard)</a>
<a href="page:scenario-5-reversal-on-preauthorization-before-clearing-visa" target="_blank">Scenario 5: Reversal on Preauthorization Before Clearing (Visa)</a>
<a href="page:scenario-12-atm-reversal" target="_blank">Scenario 12: ATM Reversal</a>
## Blocking transactions
Depending on the use case for a particular product, you may want to block certain types of transactions from taking place, or you can block transactions depending on the status of the account. In some cases you need to set product parameters for the block, and in other cases you use the Program API.
### Card transactions
You can block card transactions using a variety of methods, depending on the type to block.
#### All card transactions
The fastest way to block all card transactions is to <a href="doc:card-statuses#freezing-cards" target="_blank">put a freeze on the card</a>. Such a block does not affect ACH, billpay, Program API transactions, or fees.
#### PIN or signature transactions
You might decide that you want to block all PIN transactions or all signature (non-PIN) transactions. The PBLOK parameter controls this kind of block.
#### Card loads
Card loads that arrive over network rails are blocked by default, and so they must be enabled by setting one or more of these parameters:
**DCLD** — Discover loads
**MCLD** — Mastercard and Maestro loads
**STRLD** — STAR loads
**VSALD** — Visa ReadyLink and Visa Money Transfers
After you have enabled any of these card loads, you can block the loads by <a href="ref:api-reference-account-statuses" target="_blank">account status</a> by populating the BLKLD parameter with the statuses to block.
#### Transaction types
You can block various transaction types using the <a href="ref:post_setaccountfeature" target="_blank">Set Account Feature</a> endpoint.
|Transaction to block||`||`|
|Card not present||`||`|
|Card not present and card present (allow mobile wallet only)||`||`|
#### By MCC
Blocking by <<glossary:MCC>> means that when an authorization request arrives for a card transaction, Galileo checks the MCC, and if the MCC is on your blocklist, Galileo denies the transaction.
You can set an MCC block in these ways:
During initial product configuration. The MCC block applies to all cards with that `
On a per-account basis, using <a href="doc:designing-authorization-controls#mcc-controls" target="_blank">Account-Level Authorization Controls</a>. These account-level controls are applied in addition to the product-level controls.
#### By merchant ID
To block transactions from a particular merchant, you can block the merchant ID, which identifies a specific point of sale. You can create merchant ID blocks during product setup, or if you are using Galileo's fraud-detection engine, merchant ID blocks will be added automatically. To apply a merchant ID block at the account level, use <a href="doc:designing-authorization-controls#merchant-id-controls" target="_blank">Account-Level Authorization Controls</a>, which override product-level MCC and merchant ID controls.
#### By country
During initial product setup you can determine which transactions to block by originating country code, such as <<glossary:OFAC>> countries. You can also set the BLKTM parameter to block transactions from those countries only at certain times of day. With the NOBLK parameter you can specify which country codes should never be blocked.
To block all international transactions for an account, call <a href="ref:post_setaccountfeature" target="_blank">Set Account Feature</a> with these parameters:
featureType` — 8
featureValue` — N
Consult <a href="doc:about-card-transactions#international-merchants" target="_blank">International merchants</a> in _About Card Transactions_ for information on how a transaction is considered to be domestic or international.
### API-based money movement
To block transactions that are initiated by the Program API (<a href="ref:post_createpayment" target="_blank">Create Payment</a>, <a href="ref:post_createadjustment" target="_blank">Create Adjustment</a>, <a href="ref:post_createaccounttransfer" target="_blank">Create Account Transfer</a>), input the account statuses in the STPLD product parameter. You can input all possible <a href="ref:api-reference-account-statuses" target="_blank">account statuses</a>, or you can input a subset.
### ACH transactions
If your program supports ACH transactions, you can block ACH transactions as follows:
|Transaction to block||How to block|
|Incoming ACH credit (funds going into the customer account)||Set ACCRD|
|Incoming ACH debit (funds going out of the customer account)||Set ACDBT|
|Incoming ACH credit by account status||Populate ACSTS with the statuses to block|
|Incoming ACH debit on an inactive account||Set ACHCA, to stop the debit when the account is not in `|
## Transaction history
See the <a href="doc:transaction-history" target="_blank">Transaction History</a> guide for the method to retrieve an account’s transaction history.